2.5D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion

Steep and deep targets

MOKSHA-AEM provided unparalleled imaging capabilities allowing detection of challenging features and formations

Performance and Resolution

MOKSHA-AEM delivers improved resolving power vs CDI and 1D Inversions, while being faster than 3D inversion


IP Robust

MOKSHA-AEM differentiates signal and IP effects using our Joint IP Inversion algorithm, ensuring accuracy to real world phenomena.

Intrepid Geophysics provides a 2.5D Inversion service for airborne electromagnetic survey data using our proprietary MOKSHA-AEM inversion software. MOKSHA-AEM’s core algorithm assumes 2D geology and a 3D source, combining the resolution of a 3D inversion with the speed of a 1D inversion. This enables entire surveys to be inverted rather than a select few flight lines, enhancing coverage and ensuring no flight data is wasted.



A joint IP inversion option is now available, enabling imaging of geological features below previously difficult to process areas such as those covered with induced polarization effects.

Any time or frequency domain system can be supported provided we have documented system configuration. Systems already supported include:














Enhanced Spatial Resolution

Our 2.5D Airborne EM Inversion technology offers unprecedented spatial resolution, allowing you to accurately map subsurface conductivity variations with exceptional detail.

Improved Target Definition

With our technology, you can identify and characterize subsurface targets with greater precision, enabling informed decision-making in exploration and resource assessment.




Moksha 2.5D Depth Slices
we can show correlation with the known geology and benefit your value, purpose, and targeting decisions.

For more information on 2.5D AEM Inversion and it’s applications to resource exploration, see Rod Paterson’s webinar within the ASEG Webinar Series.

Or read 2.5D Airborne Electromagnetic inversion: A review of the benefits of moving to a higher dimension Published for the ASEG Newsletter August 2020, Issue 207


Contact us for a quote and to discuss how our 2.5D Inversion service can enhance interpretation of your AEM data.

Applications for Inversion Products

Mine-Site development


Mining Exploration

Case Studies

Bryah Basin

Jovan Silic, Rod Paterson, Des FitzGerald & Tim Archer

This case study of a SPECTREM survey in the Bryah Basin (WA) demonstrates the ability of MOKSHA-AEM to indicate geological trends, at depth, for conductors with complex geometries.

Abra East Project Area

Rod Paterson


Inversion of Excite survey data located in the Abra East project area (WA), demonstrating MOKSHA-AEM’s joint inversion capabilities.




The advantages of 2.5D airborne electromagnetic inversion in 3D geological mapping applications compared to CDI transforms or simple 1D inversions.



2.5D electromagnetic (EM) modelling computes the response of a 3D source from an arbitrary 2D geoelectrical model.



Demonstration of the improvements made in the 2.5D AEM solver, including MPI parallelisation and optimisation of the sensitivity matrix.